Breast cancer accounts for almost one in three (31%) of all cancer cases in UK women (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and causes over 12,100 deaths each year [
Two thirds of breast cancers occur in post-menopausal women and within this group, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive cancers constitute some 80%. Advances in treatment including the endocrine agent tamoxifen, chemotherapies and more recently aromatase inhibitors [
Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), antagonizing estrogen receptor function by competitively binding to the ERα, blocking estrogen binding and thus inhibiting cellular proliferation [
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) block the aromatase enzyme, preventing the conversion of androstenedione to estrone and subsequently estradiol [
With this increased use of letrozole for postmenopausal women in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and advanced disease settings, the sequencing of AIs with chemotherapy agents requires further appraisal. However, meta-analyses have demonstrated that tamoxifen, added to chemotherapy, was of marginal benefit in older women [
Given this background, tamoxifen treatment has been prescribed post-chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting; despite the differing modes of action, aromatase inhibitors are also prescribed in a similar manner. Given recent interest in combining AIs with chemotherapy, this study sought to test in an in vitro model system whether chemo-endocrine therapy using a widely prescribed AI, letrozole, in combination with two standard breast cancer chemotherapy agents, doxorubicin and docetaxel, holds clinical potential. To test this hypothesis, using MCF7-aro cells over-expressing the aromatase gene [
Materials and methods
The MCF7-aro cell-line, stably transfected with the human aromatase gene and thus dependent on androgens for proliferation, was maintained in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Media +phenol-red (+DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 1% penicillin/streptomycin and 700μg/ml G418 (Invitrogen Ltd., Renfrewshire, UK) [
Cell Viability Assays
MCF7-aro cells at a confluency of 80% were steroid deprived for 4 days, trypsinised with trypsin/EDTA lacking phenol-red (Invitrogen Ltd., Renfrewshire) and seeded into 96-well plates (1.2 x 104 cells/well) in 200μl DCC media. After 24 hours the media was removed and steroid depleted media (DCC) containing 25nM 4-Androstenedione (AD) (Sigma-Aldrich, Dorset, UK) was added to the cells to induce proliferation. Vehicle control (EtOH) or compounds either singly (letrozole, doxorubicin, docetaxel, tamoxifen) or in combinations (letrozole, doxorubicin, docetaxel) were added in media for either 2 days (48 hours), 4 days (96 hours) or 6 days depending on the experiment (Table 1). Tamoxifen (4-Hydroxytamoxifen) and docetaxel were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, Dorset, UK, doxorubicin from Pharmachemie B.V, Haarlem, Netherlands, and letrozole from Novartis, UK. Pre-treatment exposure was for 2 days followed by media removal and further treatment for 4 days. After the appropriate length of time, cells were assayed for cell viability utilizing the CellTiter 96® Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Promega, Southampton, UK). Briefly, media was removed and 100μl of AD media containing 20μl MTS added to each well and incubated for 3 hours at 37°C 5% CO2. Absorbance was read at 490nm with a 96-well SpectraMax 190 UV/Vis plate reader. Cells treated with AD were taken to represent 100% proliferation and all drug-treated cells were expressed relative to this.
Cells were seeded at 1x107 in 60mm tissue-culture plates in 4ml media and cultured for 24 hours. Cells were then treated in DCC media containing 25nM AD +/– drug (IC50, concentrations) for either 24h, or 2 days pre-treatment with letrozole followed by a further 24h treatment. Cells were harvested by washing twice in ice cold PBS prior to lysis in 180ml of complete protein lysis buffer (150mM NaCl, 1% NP40, 50mM Tris HCL pH 8.0, 50mM NaF, 5mM EDTA pH 8.0 with freshly added complete protease inhibitor [Roche, Sussex, UK]). Cell lysates were vortexed for 2 min then centrifuged at 14,000rpm for 20 min at 4°C. Protein concentrations in the supernatants were determined by Bradford assay (Bio-Rad Protein Assay, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Herts, UK) and equal amounts of protein used for western blot analysis. Immunoblot analysis was performed using the following primary antibodies: Anti-ER-a, anti-EphA2 (Sigma-Aldrich, Dorset, UK); anti b-Actin, anti-Bax (Abcam Ltd, Cambridge, UK); anti-P21waf1 (Calbiochem, Nottingham, UK); anti-Bcl2 (Dako Ltd, Cambridgeshire, UK) anti-HER-2, anti-c-Fos, anti-VEGF, anti-ER-β (Novacastra Laboratories Ltd, Newcastle Upon-Tyne); anti-p53 (DO-1) (Lane Group, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK). Polyclonal rabbit-anti-mouse IgG HRP and polyclonal swine-anti-rabbit IgG were used as secondary antibodies (Dako Ltd, Cambridgeshire, UK). Samples were separated by SDS-PAGE on 4-12% Bis-Tris NuPage gels with either MOPS or MES buffers using the Novex mini cell system (Invitrogen, Glasgow, UK), after which they were transferred to Immobilon PVDF membranes (Millipore, Buckinghamshire, UK) and blocked in 0.1% (v/v) PBS-Tween-20 (PBST) with 5% (w/v) dry skimmed milk (PBSTM) for 1h at RT. The membrane was washed 3 times for 15 min with PBST before incubation with primary antibodies at 4°C overnight. Membranes were further washed (3 x 5 min) in PBST before incubation with the appropriate HRP labeled secondary antibody in PBSTM for 1 h at room temperature. Membranes were washed (3 x 5 min) in PBST, developed by ECL™ Solution (Amersham, Buckinghamshire, UK) and exposed to autoradiography film (Fuji x-ray film) prior to development in a Fuji X-ray Imaging Developer 800A.
Aromatase enzymatic activity was assayed using a modification of the method described by Zhou et al. [
Statistical analysis was performed using Minitab statistical software (Minitab Inc., version 22.214.171.124) for descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval, etc.). 2-sample t-tests were used to test the differences in mean values. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
To establish the drug concentrations that produced a 50% inhibition of cellular growth when steroid deprived MCF7-aro cells were stimulated to proliferate with 25nM AD and then treated with the drug for 96 hours, MTS assays were performed with the letrozole, doxorubicin, docetaxel and tamoxifen. IC50 values were compiled from 3 separate experiments, each done in quadruplicate (Table 2), then the IC50 values used in all subsequent experiments.
As expected, letrozole inhibited cellular growth and significantly inhibited aromatase activity (p=0.006) (Figure 1). Conversely, tamoxifen did not inhibit aromatase activity and indeed an increase in aromatase activity was noted in the MCF7-aro cells (p=0.044) (data not shown).
Combining chemo-endocrine therapies in different schedules
The effects of combining letrozole with the chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and/or docetaxel and the effects of scheduling of the agents was examined. Cells were pre-treated with letrozole for 48 hours and this was then followed by chemotherapy alone (Sequential) or chemotherapy in the presence of further endocrine agent (Add-in). In addition, cells were not pre-treated with any agent and allowed to proliferate to 80% confluence prior to treatment with chemotherapy and endocrine agent together (Simultaneous). For each combination, three separate MTS assays were each done in quadruplicate after a total of 6 days in culture (Figure 2).
Cell survival with doxorubicin alone or docetaxel alone was reduced by combining the two drugs (Figure 2a).
Simultaneous treatment (letrozole + chemotherapy together)
Simultaneous treatment against growing cells with letrozole and either doxorubicin or docetaxel, or the combination chemotherapy, displayed enhanced cytotoxicity compared to letrozole alone (p<0.0001 in each case)(Figure 2b).
Sequential treatment (letrozole alone followed by chemotherapy alone)
Sequential treatment showed that letrozole followed by either doxorubicin or docetaxel or doxorubicin and docetaxel combined, resulted in significantly enhanced cytotoxocity compared to letrozole alone (p<0.0001 for each comparison) (Figure 2c).
Add-in pre-treatment (letrozole first + chemotherapy added in)
Add-in pre-treatment with letrozole followed by further letrozole and the addition of either doxorubicin or docetaxel or combined doxorubicin and docetaxel significantly enhanced the cytotoxic effects of the drugs (p<0.0001) (Figure 2d).
In all the treatment schedules tested, letrozole provided a greater cytotoxic effect when combined with chemotherapy, either doxorubicin, docetaxel or the two agents combined, than if letrozole was given alone. Add-in treatment of letrozole with chemotherapy provided the most efficacious method for reducing cell survival followed by sequential treatment and lastly by simultaneous treatment. Add-in treatment (Figure 2d) also displayed the biggest differential between chemotherapy alone (Figure 2a) and a chemotherapy-letrozole combinations.
Chemo-endocrine therapy with letrozole does not alter aromatase activity
As letrozole appeared to synergize with both doxorubicin and docetaxel to promote increased efficacy of these agents, aromatase activity was re-examined. Letrozole with either doxorubicin or docetaxel, alone or in combination, did not significantly alter the inhibitory effect of letrozole on aromatase activity (Figure 3).
To examine the effects of letrozole at a molecular level, a series of western blots for proteins involved in estrogen receptor signaling (ER-α, ER-β, HER-2, VEGF and EphA2; Figure 4a) and key proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were also examined (p21, p53, Bax, Bcl-2 and c-fos; Figure 4b)(Table 3).
ER-α increased and HER-2 levels decreased with letrozole. Protein levels of VEGF decreased but EphA2 and ER-β did not alter. p21, p53, bax, bcl2 and c-fos levels were unchanged with letrozole treatment.
Cells treated with doxorubicin or docetaxel, as predicted from their different mechanisms of action, displayed very different protein profiles. Doxorubicin treated cells showed increased p21, p53 and EphA2 expression and reduced expression of ER-α, c-fos and VEGF was noted. Docetaxel treated cells displayed decreased EphA2 expression. When the two agents were combined, smaller increases in p21 were observed, ER-β, and EphA2 were elevated but ER-α levels decreased.
Treatment with letrozole and doxorubicin resulted in increased levels of ER-β but neither drug added individually altered ER-β expression. However, when docetaxel was added with letrozole the expression of most proteins examined was increased (Table 3).
Application of the two chemotherapeutics with letrozole resulted in a similar pattern of protein expression with increases in p21, p53, EphA2 and ER-β expression.
Using estrogen receptor positive, aromatase enzyme transfected MFC7-aro cells as a model system and cytotoxicity assays, we have demonstrated that letrozole, when combined with the commonly used chemotherapeutic agents doxorubicin and/or docetaxel, displayed increased cytotoxicity compared to letrozole alone. This was true whether the chemo-endocrine cocktail of drugs were applied sequentially, simultaneously or added-in, although add-in application (letrozole first + chemotherapy added in) was most potent in terms of effect. Furthermore, the addition of doxorubicin, docetaxel or both chemotherapies along with letrozole did not compromise aromatase inhibition by letrozole. If extrapolated into an in vivo clinical situation, these data suggest at least no detriment in using letrozole contemporaneously with doxorubicin and/or docetaxel chemotherapy, with the potential clinical convenience of starting letrozole therapy while awaiting the add-in of chemotherapy. Indeed, a combination of letrozole with these agents may have enhanced clinical potential in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant or advanced disease settings. This contrasts with the established clinical trials evidence that concurrent tamoxifen and anthracycline based therapy is not beneficial [
Letrozole treatment alone resulted in modest changes in the proteins examined with only HER-2 and VEGF showing downregulated expression. However, given the cross-talk between HER-2 with several signal transduction pathways, alterations in HER-2 expression may underpin the increased cytotoxicity observed with letrozole [
When letrozole was added to docetaxel the effects on protein expression were usually additive. In contrast, combining letrozole with doxorubicin gave data dissimilar to that predicted from the drugs applied individually. With either letrozole or doxorubicin, ER-b protein expression was unchanged, but when combined together ER-β levels increased. Again, this highlights the complex cross-talk pathways operating at cellular levels and may also reflect the multiple mechanisms of action of doxorubicin compared with those of docetaxel [
Application of both chemotherapies together with letrozole resulted in similar changes in the protein profiles compared to the untreated controls. Given that the proteins examined are primarily involved in cell cycle control or apoptosis, and a substantial reduction in cell viability was observed, this result may not be unexpected. However, this effect was not simply due to the actions of the combined chemotherapies as the protein profiles obtained in the presence of letrozole were different compared to the doxorubicin plus docetaxel regimen. For example, with letrozole + doxorubicin + docetaxel, ER-β levels were increased reflecting a potential role in ER signaling [
ER-β is expressed in both normal and malignant breast tissue, although it tends to show lower expression in tumours [
Combining the AI letrozole with the chemotherapy agents doxorubicin and/or docetaxel in vitro enhances the cytotoxic and therapeutic potential. In contrast to the clinical trials experience with tamoxifen, the potential use of letrozole sequentially, or concurrently, with doxorubicin and/or docetaxel chemotherapy within the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and advanced disease setting warrants further investigation in the clinical setting. As a first step, a trial of docetaxol and doxorubicin +/– letrozole for ER positive primary breast cancer in postmenopausal women is attractive to detect the potential enhanced in vivo efficacy of adding letrozole to a known active chemotherapeutic regimen. Clinical endpoints of disease response and biomarker studies (informed by the data presented here) would be informative for subsequent adjuvant trials combining letrozole with chemotherapy rather than extrapolating from historic, tamoxifen-based data.
This work was supported by Breast Cancer Research Scotland and Cancer Research UK.
- CRUK SIT: Breast Cancer Statistics. In. Edited by CR UK; 2009.
- Effects of adjuvant tamoxifen and of cytotoxic therapy on mortality in early breast cancer. An overview of 61 randomized trials among 28,896 women. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. N Engl J Med 1988; 319(26): 1681-1692.
- Tamoxifen for early breast cancer: an overview of the randomised trials. Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group. Lancet 1998; 351(9114):1451-1467.
- Jordan VC, Brodie AM. Development and evolution of therapies targeted to the estrogen receptor for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Steroids 2007; 72(1): 7-25.
- Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, DeCillis A, Wickerham DL, Wolmark N, Costantino J, Redmond C, Fisher ER, Bowman DM et al. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients with negative lymph nodes and estrogen receptor-positive tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996; 88(21): 1529-1542.
- Fisher B, Dignam J, Bryant J, Wolmark N. Five versus more than five years of tamoxifen for lymph node-negative breast cancer: updated findings from the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-14 randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93(9): 684-690.
- Gray RG, Rea DW, Handley K, Marshall A, Pritchard MG, Perry P, Earl HM, Poole CJ, Salman A, Lee M et al. aTTom (adjuvant Tamoxifen--To offer more?): Randomized trial of 10 versus 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen among 6,934 women with estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or ER untested breast cancer--Preliminary results. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26(suppl): (abstract 513).
- Ingle JN, Suman VJ. Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen for management of postmenopausal breast cancer in the advanced disease and neoadjuvant settings. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003; 86(3-5): 313-319.
- Brueggemeier RW. Aromatase inhibitors--mechanisms of steroidal inhibitors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1994; 30(1): 31-42.
- Vanden Bossche HV, Moereels H, Koymans LM. Aromatase inhibitors--mechanisms for non-steroidal inhibitors. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1994; 30(1): 43-55.
- Santen RJ, Yue W, Naftolin F, Mor G, Berstein L. The potential of aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer prevention. Endocr Relat Cancer 1999; 6(2): 235-243.
- Tekmal RR, Kirma N, Gill K, Fowler K. Aromatase overexpression and breast hyperplasia, an in vivo model--continued overexpression of aromatase is sufficient to maintain hyperplasia without circulating estrogens, and aromatase inhibitors abrogate these preneoplastic changes in mammary glands. Endocr Relat Cancer 1999; 6(2): 307-314.
- Baum M, Budzar AU, Cuzick J, Forbes J, Houghton JH, Klijn JG, Sahmoud T. Anastrozole alone or in combination with tamoxifen versus tamoxifen alone for adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: first results of the ATAC randomised trial. Lancet 2002; 359(9324): 2131-2139.
- Coates AS, Keshaviah A, Thurlimann B, Mouridsen H, Mauriac L, Forbes JF, Paridaens R, Castiglione-Gertsch M, Gelber RD, Colleoni M et al. Five years of letrozole compared with tamoxifen as initial adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: update of study BIG 1-98. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25(5): 486-492.
- Ellis MJ, Ma C. Letrozole in the neoadjuvant setting: the P024 trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007; 105 (Suppl 1): 33-43.
- Goss PE, Ingle JN, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Tu D, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI et al. A randomized trial of letrozole in postmenopausal women after five years of tamoxifen therapy for early-stage breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2003; 349(19): 1793-1802.
- Mouridsen H, Gershanovich M, Sun Y, Perez-Carrion R, Boni C, Monnier A, Apffelstaedt J, Smith R, Sleeboom HP, Jaenicke F et al. Phase III study of letrozole versus tamoxifen as first-line therapy of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: analysis of survival and update of efficacy from the International Letrozole Breast Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21(11): 2101-2109.
- Goss PE, Ingle JN, Pater JL, Martino S, Robert NJ, Muss HB, Piccart MJ, Castiglione M, Shepherd LE, Pritchard KI et al. Late extended adjuvant treatment with letrozole improves outcome in women with early-stage breast cancer who complete 5 years of tamoxifen. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26(12): 1948-1955.
- Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet 2005; 365(9472): 1687-1717.
- Eifel P, Axelson JA, Costa J, Crowley J, Curran WJ, Jr., Deshler A, Fulton S, Hendricks CB, Kemeny M, Kornblith AB et al. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, November 1-3, 2000. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93(13): 979-989.
- Goldhirsch A, Glick JH, Gelber RD, Coates AS, Thurlimann B, Senn HJ. Meeting highlights: international expert consensus on the primary therapy of early breast cancer 2005. Ann Oncol 2005; 16(10): 1569-1583.
- Itoh T, Karlsberg K, Kijima I, Yuan YC, Smith D, Ye J, Chen S. Letrozole-, anastrozole-, and tamoxifen-responsive genes in MCF-7aro cells: a microarray approach. Mol Cancer Res 2005; 3(4): 203-218.
- Kurebayashi J, Nukatsuka M, Nagase H, Nomura T, Hirono M, Yamamoto Y, Sugimoto Y, Oka T, Sonoo H. Additive antitumor effect of concurrent treatment of 4-hydroxy tamoxifen with 5-fluorouracil but not with doxorubicin in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2007; 59(4): 515-525.
- Osborne CK, Kitten L, Arteaga CL. Antagonism of chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity for human breast cancer cells by antiestrogens. J Clin Oncol 1989; 7(6): 710-717.
- Albain KS, Barlow WE, Ravdin PM, Farrar WB, Burton GV, Ketchel SJ, Cobau CD, Levine EG, Ingle JN, Pritchard KI et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy and timing of tamoxifen in postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive, node-positive breast cancer: a phase 3, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2009; 374(9707): 2055-2063.
- Zhou DJ, Pompon D, Chen SA. Stable expression of human aromatase complementary DNA in mammalian cells: a useful system for aromatase inhibitor screening. Cancer Res 1990; 50(21): 6949-6954.
- Jones KL, Buzdar AU. Evolving novel anti-HER2 strategies. Lancet Oncol 2009; 10(12): 1179-1187.
- Fu Y, Li S, Zu Y, Yang G, Yang Z, Luo M, Jiang S, Wink M, Efferth T. Medicinal chemistry of paclitaxel and its analogues. Curr Med Chem 2009; 16(30): 3966-3985.
- Nielsen D, Maare C, Skovsgaard T. Cellular resistance to anthracyclines. Gen Pharmacol 1996; 27(2): 251-255.
- Hartman J, Strom A, Gustafsson JA. Estrogen receptor beta in breast cancer--diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Steroids 2009; 74(8): 635-641.
- Murphy LC, Watson PH. Is oestrogen receptor-beta a predictor of endocrine therapy responsiveness in human breast cancer? Endocr Relat Cancer 2006; 13(2): 327-334.